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Norms, Goals and Principles for Media Literacy”

Dr Violaine Hacker, European Studies Department, Sorbonne, Paris, France

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to analyse EU Medias regulation in a globalized context, as regards cultural diversity and knowledge as common goods. It then focuses on media literacy and deals with ethics and political economy. Indeed, the ‘Creative Europe' programme is supposed to help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU. It supposes to tailor the regulatory and institutional frameworks in supporting private-public collaboration as a model of co-responsibility.

In that respect, I will show the ambition of the EU programme on EU media literacy - even though education remains a competence of the member states. I will demonstrate the fragmentation among countries, the accountability of as well as opportunity for the private sectors – including the industry -, and the role of the educational people. I will show the obstacles for messages about media literacy and about the value of digital media and learning to resonate with policymakers, school leaders, as well as the private sector.

Indeed the possibility that the development of active citizenship through Medias could affect the economy remains taboo. The way the promotion of active citizenship could affect the economy and vice-versa is not yet understood properly. There remain differences between what we could call a technical focus to digital literacy and a humanist and cultural focus to media literacy. This is mainly due to a lack of bridges between educational systems and the working system, as well as the lack of consideration given to the value of education in relation to employability and the ability to affect production. Also ideological protectionism stemming from a political commitment criticises and condemns messages, so that Medias get opposed to this commitment.

Consequently, the current emerging model of co-responsibility is still lacking translation into effective actions. The dispersion and bad coordination among stakeholders leads to failure in co-operation and interchange of information among different actors. Then national, regional and local initiatives do not achieve any European visibility of proper media. I will therefore show what kind of policy actions could be developed.

The availability of public goods is often put into question by tendencies of privatization and by sovereign claims over certain resources. Apparently, public goods are those goods, services and conditions for which the society is responsible that they are produced, distributed and secured. They can include commodities as well as social, cultural and educational goods. They are not determined by material properties, but by political decisions based on their social value, interest and power relationships. The growing global demand for public goods can hardly be met by traditional means of international cooperation, including international organizations. Instead, it sometimes requires making use of commerce and the world trading system as well as of the potential contributions of private actors.

Nonetheless, doubts arise in view of governance, - the ability of the international system to properly appreciate demand and react to it accordingly -, particularly because it requires a crosssectoral approach. While states, rather than advocating the common interest, are likely to act as some sort of stakeholders at global level, the involvement of individual beneficiaries and potential contributors of public goods and NGOs is crucial. The private actors may also engage in rule-making and standard setting, and thus can contribute to the further development of the international body of regulation, which is needed to cope with the effects of globalization. Indeed, international commercial rules and structures and procedures provide for important public good and services, mainly regulation and dispute settlement.

In that respect, this paper aims at stressing the importance of the different active players in Medias sector regarding the implementation of the visions spelt out by the EC in its ethical foundation in a globalised context. Indeed Europe need to assume a transition from its strategy based on the notion of cultural diversity toward the promotion of a more “Creative Europe” . The importance of media literacy has been widely recognized, but progress varies according to the country or region, and suffers from lack of funding and recognition. Decision-makers still have to assure it a higher importance in education than granted until today in order to equip, particularly children, with the skills to decode images, and so people can continue in Europe to produce and project their own imagery and identity for the future. Consequently, efforts will have to be steered in the right direction, not only to foster entrepreneurship and create more jobs , but also to enable European citizens to acquire new skills, as well as to guarantee social inclusion and cohesion. A way of empowering EU citizens with new skills - through training, guidance and lifelong learning experiences - is to promote inter-disciplinarity initiatives between the technological, scientific and creative sectors, such like creative clusters or exchange of good practices, in order to promote and benefit from media literacy, essential to ensure an inclusive European society.

At the foundational level, an examination of the core characteristics of the involvement of the civil society and their substantive legal principles reveals some more fundamental impediments to their fulfilling objectives laid out by government. Looking at the legal restraints that limit the operation of it, it will be argued that what appears at first blush to be a near perfect synergy, may well turn out to be a significant stumbling block for the development of the media literacy policy. While much obvious synergy exists, there are inherent difficulties, at both the practical and theoretical level, for the large-scale involvement of the private sector.

Building such a European industrial level playing field for the Medias services, particularly regarding education - and therefore Media literacy -, entails a new type of multilevel governance based on cooperation amongst the cultural, creative, educative and business sectors.

I. The new governance related to Media Literacy

The promotion of Media Literacy through the new Creative Europe Programme (B) require a new type of governance, particularly with coresponsibility (A).

A. A new model of co-responsibility

The active participation of the industry and the civil society in media literacy initiatives could help promote the co-responsibility. For instance, some private-public activities developing ties between film and education are becoming common with festivals and fairs, workshops, seminars or activities in education centres. The public television in particular also tends to launch initiatives related to television programmes, analysing advertising or discussing the content of television programmes. To a lesser extent, the same is occurring among companies involved with digital media. Furthermore, agreements have been made between educational authorities and press editors.

Firstly, activities developed by governments and institutional authorities aim at promoting media literacy with investment, subsidies, support, rulings, control, or vigilance. Governments can decide on policy activities regarding family, civil participation, educational or training. Many countries - such like Finland or Slovenia – have included the acquisition of media and digital skills as among the final objectives of their curriculum – sometimes linked to civic education and active citizenship, for instance in France or Spain . Now a Europe-wide scale inclusion of media literacy in the official education curriculum would promote programmes developing media skills and knowledge as part of the promotion of civil and knowledge society, as well as the promotion of diversity and activities of local communities.

Secondly, the civil society plays a pivotal role. Professional educators’ associations, and associations of parents, professionals, political and religious movements, and young people that protest media related risk situations, encourage the raising of awareness. For instance, Pettatori Onlus is a cultural and volunteer association specialising in the field of social communication, accredited for training in critique of the media. It supports vigilance for the respect of dignity, and the rights of people, the family and youth. On top of it, despite the existing network of cooperation, financial support for meetings, research projects organized by existing networks and new services would help adapt to change. These suppose a Common Framework with an overall strategic goal, possibly defined during dialogue and cooperation between the different actors regarding media regulation, self-regulation and co-regulation as a means of promoting media literacy. Institutional inertia and routine often slow down the development of innovation that media literacy policies bring with them.

Thirdly, the co-participation of the industry, the education system and other actors in the development of lifelong learning activities could be encouraged through European support mechanisms for production. The media industry has most to gain from an effective policy on this issue, because it can increase in the demand of ICT or electronic commerce and communication. It would boost demand of quality in communications resulting in the improvement of competition as well as commercial communication. Actually the current level of audience saturation towards commercial and advertising communications causes a loss of attention and confidence which is detrimental to the effectiveness of advertising messages. Moreover, it is expected that the promotion of media literacy would improve the implementation and extension cycles of the innovations in society and the market. It represents a possibility to take better advantage of the opportunities with in the end improvement and acceleration in the cycle of investment-research-development and amortization. The MEDIA Programme should continue to encourage subtitling and dubbing to enable cross border access to foreign language content. Furthermore public funds might be available to adapt digital applications with understanding of consumer behaviour, facilitating closer engagement with target audiences through social media, and test new business models. Media literacy continues to evolve at the same time of new technology leads to emerging insight. For instance, in Hong Kong and China, the rapid diffusion of ICTs in education and the massive injection of funding have offered huge potential for developing creative work, with an eye on internet safety for youth in Singapore or Japan. In the USA, various stakeholders struggle over nuances of meaning associated with the conceptualization of the practice on media literacy education. Eventually, Australia, New Zealand and Canada remain the most advanced countries, notably because well established partnerships with the media industry and regulators are accepted. Where there are fewer resources, or where there is little interest from policy makers, the development of Media Literacy initiatives relies almost exclusively on partnerships, for example with production based projects in China and Hong Kong. In many African countries, these partnerships are necessary just to ensure the provision of basic resources. In many developing countries, educators are still largely preoccupied with developing basic print literacy, so that media literacy is only just beginning to register as a concern! Nonetheless the possibility that the development of active citizenship could affect the economy remains taboo. The way the promotion of active citizenship could affect the economy and vice-versa is not yet understood properly. There remain differences between what we could call a technical focus to digital literacy and a humanist and cultural focus to media literacy. This is mainly due to a lack of bridges between educational systems and the working system, as well as the lack of consideration given to the value of education in relation to employability and the ability to affect production. Ideological protectionism stemming from a political commitment criticises and condemns messages so that Medias get opposed to this commitment. Consequently, the current emerging model of co-responsibility is still lacking translation into effective actions. The dispersion and bad coordination among stakeholders leads to failure in co-operation and interchange of information among different actors. Then national, regional and local initiatives do not achieve any European visibility of proper media. Nowadays, broadcasters and digital operators should be encouraged to return digital distribution rights to independent producers after a certain period of time, in case of these rights remained unexploited. Better co-operation efforts within the sector could be reflected by the public sector.

B. The new programme Creative Europe

The new programme ‘Creative Europe’ will give, from 2014, the EU the means to better support co-operation between education institutions and the world of work. It would allow the EU to help Member States design and apply effective education policies or reforms, and transfer innovative approaches to others. However various factors make it difficult to achieve a wider and deeper development in media literacy, in particular the lack of a shared common framework to work with, such like objectives, concepts, methods, resources, research, results evaluation. This makes it more difficult for exchanges, comparisons and joint strategies. The dispersion and lack of coordination among stakeholders leads to failure in co-operation and interchange of information among different actors. Then national, regional and local initiatives do not achieve a European visibility of proper media. Besides, beyond the difficulties of material and technological nature, institutional inertia and routine slow down the development of innovation that media literacy policies could bring with them. Anyway, there is an existing network of cooperation. For instance, the European Children Network is active in children’s rights within the EU. Nonetheless it needs financial support for meetings, research projects organized by existing networks. The creation of new specific networks and services would assist in the formation of networks. This supposes communication campaigns and debate, as well as research and education. A Common Framework with an overall strategic goal would contribute to create a European work consensus. Indeed European quality standards – involving media industries, professionals, citizens, and authorities for communication services – could then be developed. Dialogue and cooperation between the different actors should be boosted regarding media regulation, self regulation and co-regulation as a means of promoting media literacy. For instance, Italy has a self-regulation code on TV and Minors: “TV e minori: Nuovo codice di autoregolamentazione, Ministero delle Comunicazioni”. The German Association of State Media Authorities in the Federal Republic of Germany has the duty to co-ordinate stakeholders and local authorities’ interaction. Ultimately Media literacy must be associated with the acquisition of creative production skills for citizens and teachers. A Europe-wide scale inclusion of media literacy in the official education curriculum would promote programme for developing media skills and knowledge as part of the promotion of civil and knowledge society. Education and training in media literacy is as an important part of basic citizenship skills, basic education and lifelong learning, as much in the formal as in the informal sector. In the future, it needs to identify, and increase the visibility of existing work in the sector in Europe, to provide financial and social support for activities in the sector. The coordination and cooperation networks of existing initiatives will enable the debate and research of the results coming from the different possible models of inclusion in the educational field. By the way, the creation of educational media on a Europe-wide scale should be fostered to reinforce the diversity and activities of local communities. For instance, “Cyberfax!” create a worldwide publication written by young people. Besides, the co-participation of industry, the education system and other actors in the development of lifelong learning activities could be encouraged with European support mechanisms for production, award and promotion of productions. Media literacy initiatives with the distribution and development of Europe’s audiovisual and media heritage should be coordinated, with programmes and materials for teaching audiovisual literacy which use European contents, and training and learning on audiovisual literacy to the appreciation and evaluation of European audiovisual production for its contribution to cultural diversity and the defence of identity. Media literacy has to seek equity in relation to technological and cultural innovations in order to guarantee and increase a better use of them and make a contribution to economic growth. For instance, Free Wi-Fi is a pan-European project which promotes the expansion of free Wi-Fi areas. By the way, ties should be promoted between industry and research into media education. For instance, the BBC offers the general public many different online resources for getting involved with Media Literacy and media production skills. In Italy, the Movimento Italiano Genitori is a parental association active in the protection of minors in the media.

Encouraging new uses and helping to create a complementary market accessible to teachers and students could be operated in cooperation with viewer associations. The Commission's initiative on media literacy responded to requests by the European Parliament and industry together with a number of Member States. In particular, projects have received European financial support in with the objective to: analyze media representations and media values in a multimedia perspective; encourage the production and distribution of Media Literacy related content; stimulate the use of media in order to improve participation in social and community life; intensify networking around media education related issues; concentrate on the implementation of media literacy initiatives bridging the media industry and the education world, in a “hands-on” approach. In that respect, the newly proposed ‘Creative Europe’ programme should help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU . Building a new approach toward a European level playing field industry will foster the adoption of policies aimed at developing a conducive environment, enabling European companies as well as citizens to use their imagination and creativity – both sources of innovation –, and therefore of competitiveness and sustainability.

Against this backdrop, and given the fact that the “Europe 2020 Strategy” will determine the EU’s policies and investment priorities for the next decade, this paper also aims at stressing the importance of the different players of the Medias sectors in the implementation of the visions spelt out by the EC in its foundation and extolled in the context of the globalisation.

II. Promoting the EU Ethical foundation in the globalisation

In a global context, public-private cooperation should adhere to both the economic vision of global public goods and the ethical vision of the common good. By doing this, it would prevent Europe from evolving towards a more inclusive, sustainable and competitive society, dealing at the same time with important economic and societal challenges.

Europe need to assume a transition from its strategy based on the notion of cultural diversity toward the promotion of a more “creative Europe”. Indeed institutions in the Global Economy can genuinely respect values which are of three kinds based on a “triangle of coherence”. On one side, it lies today within the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as in the second side within the United Nations – particularly the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) – providing a framework for global legitimacy through accountability. On the third side, the expertise of member-driven international organizations and civil society depends on the incorporation of flexibilities in the rules, so as to preserve the expression of identity in a globalized world.

The Media literacy supposes the development of the knowledge economy (A), and this requires revamping the myth of the cultural diversity facing the experience economy (B).

A. The knowledge economy in the increasingly globalised information society

Activities developed by government and institutional authorities aim at promoting media literacy with investment, subsidies, support, rulings, control, or vigilance. In a global skills race dominated by increasing soft powers, nobody can speak of pluralism within the public spheres, under the reserve of respecting a fair procedure which allows the expression of axiological judgments. Therefore European and international institutions as well as a number of regulatory authorities depending on the countries have proposed institutional definition of media literacy. The involvement of the civil society lies in with the movement to extend education with the focus on “learning for the length and breath of life” acclaimed by both the UNESCO and the EU. The recent concept of media literacy is defined attached to the idea of “Education for Sustainable Development” included in the United Nations’ Principles, of which UNESCO is the lead agency . It was contextualized within the advocacies on the human rights-based approach to programming, and the creation of knowledge societies, both carried out with the support of the Council of Europe. Recently, the Fez Declaration (17 June 2011) called on all stakeholders to reaffirm their commitment to initiatives relating to media and information literacy (MIL) as a combined set of competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes). The first International University Network on MIL and Intercultural Dialogue was launched through a partnership with the United Nations Alliance of Civilization. An International Clearinghouse on MIL will be created in cooperation with the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations. Those institutions are supposed to facilitate follow-up on the recommendations of the Forum. The Organization’s strategy includes the integration of MIL into all levels of education systems, particularly through the adaptation the MIL Curriculum for Teachers. Also it will set up of the MIL University Network as well as facilitation of international cooperation. Preparation of a Global Framework on MIL Indicators and development of Guidelines for Preparing National MIL Policies and Strategies are envisaged.

The EU regulatory framework for media literacy has accelerated in recent years, with numerous policies falling within the scope of a wide spectrum of activity.

The Lisbon Agenda in 2000 – then further developed with the Europe 2020 Strategy – asserted that, for Europe to remain competitive economically on a global level, its citizens had to embrace the competencies required to be able to participate both in the knowledge economy and in the increasingly globalised information society. Further to which, the Audiovisual Media Services Directive gave a reporting obligation for the Commission to measure levels of media literacy in all Member States. It established new rules corresponding to media development in Europe. It also anticipated a full assessment of media literacy levels by 2011, since the civil society will get more and more engaged in the process. In a nutshell, the EU needs a progressive citizenship, from civil citizenship to cultural citizenship, depending on the acquired skills, behaviour and virtues related to the European heritage. Lacking the soul of those values, the EU would disintegrate as many other creations of social engineering only described in a constant (liberal) social contract. So, however media literacy is defined, the regulation should be dynamic, multidimensional, adaptive, fluid and ever-expanding to account for future technological advances, and new purposes for and ways of interacting. Indeed, the way audiences view television is changing very fast. For instance, Microsoft is set to bring live television to millions of Xbox 360 owners. The landscape is transforming, and Internet television availability will be as widely available around the world as it currently is in the UK. Over the next few years, digital services will be free to use on your console to which you will be able to ‘speak’ to order video, mobile phone services, less controlled web and social networks. Against this backdrop, and given the fact that the “Europe 2020 Strategy” will determine the EU’s policies and investment priorities for the next decade, education will have to adapt. In the public sphere characterized by consensus and cooperation, only public goods can be sought and acquired. It may also be seen as a unique world characterized by rivalry and competition in which everyone could pursue their private interests, but only if there is a consensus regarding an objective procedure. Then pluralism supposes the reserve of respecting a fair procedure, which allows the expression of axiological judgments. The development of critical thinking and citizen participation form private to public sphere through the media literacy is an essential contribution to the cultural development and progress of a democratic society. Attention must be paid on the fact that restricting the public sphere to the playground of collective rights may direct to very rigid normative perspective. The central feature of the media globalization is larger cross border flows of media outputs, growth of media trans-national conglomerates, centralization of media control, spread and intensification of commercialization. Citizens experience the explosive growth and diffusion of media technologies and their increasingly central location in our public and private lives. The fall of autocratic regimes in Tunisia and Egypt showed the world how activist can harness Medias. Various forms of political information, symbols, and narratives are astounding. These engagements with politics are not segregated as separate activities for the duty bound so-called ‘good citizen’. Instead they are interspersed and concomitant with the flow and rhythms of routine activities in daily life. Ordinary people even in the remotest village in the world seem increasingly to be shaped by the roles of local-global power dynamics.

B. The myth of the cultural diversity facing the experience economy

The discussion of values has long been central to the WTO negotiations of specific global agreements that allow for the expression of identities. Among members, differing visions contradicts on culture. Hence a movie is an artistic creation in Europe, and then benefits from special treatment, while it is only a mere entertainment in the U.S. whatever his own artistic performance. Even within the fragmented Europe, interventionist policies based on the notion of “cultural exception” get opposed to the policy of the “cultural specificity” on the liberal Anglo-Saxon side. Indeed, in international law, films are traditionally seen as property, and the content of television programs is defined as a service. Consequently cultural interventionist policies get opposed to Anglo-Saxon liberal position, causing failures in international negotiations. Actually the underlying purpose of these challenged policies has not been above all to promote the expression of local cultures and identities, but rather more substantially regulatory development subsidies propitious for powerful impact on media services. The EU fears of abandoning the advances receipt system supposed to guarantee cultural diversity - seen in Hollywood as a subsidy mechanism. Then a number of WTO Members actively support their cultural industry in the interests of preserving their identity, through minimum national content quotas for Medias, and exemptions or subsidies. The Southern European countries pledge allegiance to subsidies or quotas considering the culture as a key economic resource due to its potential beyond fundamental education, spiritual and integration values. In contrast, the very active in cultural affairs at domestic level EU Nordic countries opposed the introduction of quotas in the European audiovisual industry. Along with the UK, they have endorsed the version of a cultural policy by supporting the development of the “experience economy”.

The intangible value of goods is then deemed as important as manufacturing – through aesthetic, design, branding. The primacy of the interests of consumers is foregrounded, adding that competition in the Medias sector would rather have beneficial effects. The influence of creative industries on other sectors of the economy, notably ICT, is recognized. Moreover anxious of having to take into account their privileged relationship between their industries and Hollywood studios, the United Kingdom did not support the European interventionism. Additionally, the conservative-liberal democrat government recently decided to abolish the UK Film Council (UKFC) in 2012. This main distribution organization for government grants to the Seventh Art (with an annual operating budget of 18 million Euros) certainly helped achieve blockbuster trade export abroad and film entertainment (more than 900 feature films, including Bright Star, Slumdog Millionaire, or Fish Tank, The King’s Speech). The UKFC has been promoting such risky, innovative, artistic and aesthetic projects, inventing a new cinematic language. It also reproduced by rote successful unoriginal recipes copying the model of Four Weddings and a Funeral and The Full Monty. The bureaucratic decision-making of this institution that was entitled to inspect the final assembly of the films it financed is deeply criticized. It was neither a guarantee for bond quality, nor cultural diversity. Since April 2011, the British government therefore promotes the establishment of a direct link with the British Film Institute founded in 1993, as well as public-private partnerships with Warner Bros, Pinewood Studios Group, the production Guild, and the UK Screen Association. The UK ranks second behind the United States in international sales of audiovisual products finished. This is due to the funding system combining public and private support, which keeps the players at a high level of demand, pushing them to innovate and to be more creative. In addition, television production has as a social and cultural impact. According to a study of the polling institute BARB, which measures the British audience every week, 83% of the public said they gained valuable knowledge while watching TV and 66% of respondents said they use television as a source of key information. The UK audiovisual market is the leading market in Europe and leads the European industry in terms of size and exports. The UK film industry is the best exporter within the European Union market but is also the most dependants on this European non-national market. Nonetheless the UK Film and Television Industry are not self-sustaining. It is more and more integrated in the European and international system and needs the European market to grow.

In such a conflicted context, the notion of “cultural diversity” has been echoed by more neutral organizations, particularly within the UNESCO - second side of the “triangle of coherence”. Beyond the Declaration of Principles adopted in 2003 at the Geneva Phase of the World Summit on the information Society (WSIS), the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions was adopted in 20 October 2005, but neither ratified neither by the US, Australia nor by Israel. It is instead a clear recognition of the specificity of cultural goods and services, as well as state sovereignty and public services in this area. Thought for world trade, this soft law instrument (strength in not binding) clearly became a crucial reference to the definition of the European policy choice. In 2009, the European Court of Justice favoured a broad view of culture – beyond cultural values – through the protection of film or the objective of promoting linguistic diversity yet previously recognized.

On top of it, under this Convention, the EU and China have committed to fostering more balanced cultural exchanges, strengthening international cooperation and solidarity with business and trade opportunities in cultural and creative industries. The most motivating factor behind Beijing’s willingness to work in partnership at business level might certainly be the access to creative talents and skills from foreign markets. On the European side, technology is not considered as an amusing quirk: the annual income of the new-wave web portals targeting young people now exceeds €96 million. Digital networks are becoming cultural and creative spaces yet to explore. The promotion of media literacy becomes crucial in the respect!

References

1. Books and monographs:

Mitchell, W. J. T. and Hansen, M. (eds) (2010), Critical Terms for Media Studies. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Dahlgren, P. (2009), Media and political engagement: citizens, communication, and democracy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York.

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Sanders, K. (2009), Communicating Politics in the Twenty-First Century, Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke/New York.

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2. Journal articles:

Hacker, Violaine (2007a), «Intérêt européen et Stratégie de Lisbonne: actualité d’une notion», (http://www.confrontations.org/IMG/pdf/Interet_europeen_Actualite_d_une_notion.pdf).

Hacker, V. (2007b) «L’Art délicat de la politique audiovisuelle de l’Union européenne. Entre tractations commerciales et politique culturelle », Dialogues européens «Les politiques culturelles de l’Union», Presses de la Sorbonne, No. 10: pp. 25-35.

Hacker, Violaine (2011a), “Building Medias Industry while promoting a community of values in the globalization: from quixotic choices to pragmatic boon for EU Citizens”, Politické Védy-Journal of Political Science, Slovakia, pp. 64-74.

Hacker, Violaine (2011c), “The European cultural citizenship regarding the globalized media policy”, Communication on the International Conference on Citizenship and Nationalities in Europe, April 2011, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia, L’Harmattan, coll. Local et Global, Soulages, François (Dir.).

Hacker, Violaine (2011d), “Cultiver la créativité, corollaire de la diversité culturelle européenne ”, Revue Géoéconomie : Cinéma: le déclin de l’empire américain?, No. 58, pp. 25-36, (http://choiseul-editions.com/Num_Revues.php?idNum=228&pg_aff=0&artParPage=6).

Hacker, Violaine (2011e), « Citoyenneté culturelle et politique européenne des médias : entre compétitivité et promotion des valeurs », Nations, cultures et entreprises en Europe, G. ROUET (Dir.), Collection Local et Global, L’Harmattan, Paris, pp. 163-184.

Hacker, Violaine (2011f), European Public-Private Partnership on Media Literacy: A ... curriculum and new technologies, Comenius Journal, September 2011.

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KEA, “Promoting Investment in the Cultural and Creative Sector: Financing Needs, Trends and Opportunities. Report prepared for ECCE Innovation – Nantes Métropole”, June 2010 (http://www.keanet.eu/report/accesstofinance2010.pdf).

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New “Audiovisual without Frontiers”. 9 March 2007. The Commission text of the modernised “Television without Frontiers” Directive. After a first reading in the European Parliament and the Council, there is now broad agreement with the Commission about the future legal framework for Europe’s audiovisual sector. The new Directive reaffirms the pillars of Europe’s audiovisual model, which are cultural diversity, protection of minors, consumer protection, media pluralism, and the fight against racial and religious hatred. http://ec.europa.eu/avpolicy/docs/reg/modernisation/proposal_2005/com_2007_170_en.pdf

Protection of Minors and Human Dignity Recommendation (1998). It extends the scope to include media literacy, the cooperation and sharing of experience and good practices between self-, co- and regulatory bodies, action against discrimination in all media, and the right of reply concerning online media. It was in this connection that the Green Paper on the protection of minors and human dignity. This Green Paper is the first stage of reflection at European level on the ethical dimension of the Information Society and the way in which the general interest can be protected in the new services. Consultations took place with European institutions, Member States and all parties concerned (industry, users, and consumers) Safer Internet Plus. The Safer Internet plus programme aims to promote safer use of the Internet and new online technologies, particularly for children, and to fight against illegal content and content unwanted by the end-user, as part of a coherent approach by the European Union. (http://ec.europa. eu/information_society/activities/sip/index_en.htm.

4. Statistical Resources:

EUROSTAT. Statistics and Indicators for Europe. (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa. eu/portal/page?_pageid=1090,30070682,1090_33076576&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL).

Eurybase – The information database on education systems in Europe. National dossiers. EURYDICE the information network on education in Europe (http://www.eurydice.org/portal/page/portal/Eurydice/DB_Eurybase_Home).

5. Regulatory documents:

European Commission : Recommendation on Media Literacy in the Digital Environment for a more Competitive Audiovisual and Content Industry and an Inclusive Knowledge Society (2009); “i2010 – A European Information

Society for growth and employment” initiative; Media Literacy in a digital world European Parliament Resolution. The ‘Prets’ Report (2009); Communication on Media Literacy from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee (2008); The Audiovisual Media Services Directive, art. 26 Directive 2007/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007; Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of minors in relation to the competitiveness of the European audiovisual and on-line information services industry (2006); Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (2006).

European Court of Justice, 5 March 2009, Unión de Televisiones Comerciales Asociadas (UTECA) c. Administración General del Estado.

G20, Declaration of the member of states and government for the creation of the Charter for Sustainable Economic Activity, on 24-25 September 2009, Pittsburgh.

ONU-ITU (2004): Report of the Geneva Phase of the World Summit on the Information Society. genevapalexpo, 10-12 December 2003 (http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/md/03/wsis/doc/S03-WSIS-DOC-0009!R1!PDF-E.pdf)

ONU-ITU (2006): Report of the Tunis phase of the World Summit on the Information Society. Tunis, Kram-Palexpo, 16-18 November 2005 (http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs2/tunis/off/9rev1.pdf)

UNESCO, Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, General Conference, 20 October 2005.

UNESCO (1982): Challenge of Media Education (The Grunwald Document). International Symposium on Media Education. Grunwald, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. (http://www.medialit.org/reading_room/article133.

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UNESCO (1999): Recommendations. The Vienna Conference ‘’Educating for the Media and the Digital Age’‘, 1990 (http://www.mediamanual.at/en/downloads. php http://mediamanual.at/en/pdf/recommendations.pdf).

UNESCO (2002): Recommendations. Seville Conference “Youth Media Education”, 2002. (www.coe.int /t /e/human_right s/media/l inks/events/1DraftVersionFReport_youthmediaeduc_en.pdf)

UNESCO (2002): Recommendations. Tunis Mentor meeting, (http ://www.unesco.ru/eng/pages/bythemes/stasya13072005122812.php).

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