Norms, Goals and Principles for Media Literacy”

Dr Violaine Hacker, European Studies Department, Sorbonne, Paris, France


The aim of the paper is to analyse EU Medias regulation in a globalized context, as regards cultural diversity and knowledge as common goods. It then focuses on media literacy and deals with ethics and political economy. Indeed, the ‘Creative Europe' programme is supposed to help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU. It supposes to tailor the regulatory and institutional frameworks in supporting private-public collaboration as a model of co-responsibility.

In that respect, I will show the ambition of the EU programme on EU media literacy - even though education remains a competence of the member states. I will demonstrate the fragmentation among countries, the accountability of as well as opportunity for the private sectors – including the industry -, and the role of the educational people. I will show the obstacles for messages about media literacy and about the value of digital media and learning to resonate with policymakers, school leaders, as well as the private sector.

Indeed the possibility that the development of active citizenship through Medias could affect the economy remains taboo. The way the promotion of active citizenship could affect the economy and vice-versa is not yet understood properly. There remain differences between what we could call a technical focus to digital literacy and a humanist and cultural focus to media literacy. This is mainly due to a lack of bridges between educational systems and the working system, as well as the lack of consideration given to the value of education in relation to employability and the ability to affect production. Also ideological protectionism stemming from a political commitment criticises and condemns messages, so that Medias get opposed to this commitment.

Consequently, the current emerging model of co-responsibility is still lacking translation into effective actions. The dispersion and bad coordination among stakeholders leads to failure in co-operation and interchange of information among different actors. Then national, regional and local initiatives do not achieve any European visibility of proper media. I will therefore show what kind of policy actions could be developed.

The availability of public goods is often put into question by tendencies of privatization and by sovereign claims over certain resources. Apparently, public goods are those goods, services and conditions for which the society is responsible that they are produced, distributed and secured. They can include commodities as well as social, cultural and educational goods. They are not determined by material properties, but by political decisions based on their social value, interest and power relationships. The growing global demand for public goods can hardly be met by traditional means of international cooperation, including international organizations. Instead, it sometimes requires making use of commerce and the world trading system as well as of the potential contributions of private actors.

Nonetheless, doubts arise in view of governance, - the ability of the international system to properly appreciate demand and react to it accordingly -, particularly because it requires a crosssectoral approach. While states, rather than advocating the common interest, are likely to act as some sort of stakeholders at global level, the involvement of individual beneficiaries and potential contributors of public goods and NGOs is crucial. The private actors may also engage in rule-making and standard setting, and thus can contribute to the further development of the international body of regulation, which is needed to cope with the effects of globalization. Indeed, international commercial rules and structures and procedures provide for important public good and services, mainly regulation and dispute settlement.

In that respect, this paper aims at stressing the importance of the different active players in Medias sector regarding the implementation of the visions spelt out by the EC in its ethical foundation in a globalised context. Indeed Europe need to assume a transition from its strategy based on the notion of cultural diversity toward the promotion of a more “Creative Europe” . The importance of media literacy has been widely recognized, but progress varies according to the country or region, and suffers from lack of funding and recognition. Decision-makers still have to assure it a higher importance in education than granted until today in order to equip, particularly children, with the skills to decode images, and so people can continue in Europe to produce and project their own imagery and identity for the future. Consequently, efforts will have to be steered in the right direction, not only to foster entrepreneurship and create more jobs , but also to enable European citizens to acquire new skills, as well as to guarantee social inclusion and cohesion. A way of empowering EU citizens with new skills - through training, guidance and lifelong learning experiences - is to promote inter-disciplinarity initiatives between the technological, scientific and creative sectors, such like creative clusters or exchange of good practices, in order to promote and benefit from media literacy, essential to ensure an inclusive European society.

At the foundational level, an examination of the core characteristics of the involvement of the civil society and their substantive legal principles reveals some more fundamental impediments to their fulfilling objectives laid out by government. Looking at the legal restraints that limit the operation of it, it will be argued that what appears at first blush to be a near perfect synergy, may well turn out to be a significant stumbling block for the development of the media literacy policy. While much obvious synergy exists, there are inherent difficulties, at both the practical and theoretical level, for the large-scale involvement of the private sector.

Building such a European industrial level playing field for the Medias services, particularly regarding education - and therefore Media literacy -, entails a new type of multilevel governance based on cooperation amongst the cultural, creative, educative and business sectors.

I. The new governance related to Media Literacy

The promotion of Media Literacy through the new Creative Europe Programme (B) require a new type of governance, particularly with coresponsibility (A).

A. A new model of co-responsibility

The active participation of the industry and the civil society in media literacy initiatives could help promote the co-responsibility. For instance, some private-public activities developing ties between film and education are becoming common with festivals and fairs, workshops, seminars or activities in education centres. The public television in particular also tends to launch initiatives related to television programmes, analysing advertising or discussing the content of television programmes. To a lesser extent, the same is occurring among companies involved with digital media. Furthermore, agreements have been made between educational authorities and press editors.

Firstly, activities developed by governments and institutional authorities aim at promoting media literacy with investment, subsidies, support, rulings, control, or vigilance. Governments can decide on policy activities regarding family, civil participation, educational or training. Many countries - such like Finland or Slovenia – have included the acquisition of media and digital skills as among the final objectives of their curriculum – sometimes linked to civic education and active citizenship, for instance in France or Spain . Now a Europe-wide scale inclusion of media literacy in the official education curriculum would promote programmes developing media skills and knowledge as part of the promotion of civil and knowledge society, as well as the promotion of diversity and activities of local communities.

Secondly, the civil society plays a pivotal role. Professional educators’ associations, and associations of parents, professionals, political and religious movements, and young people that protest media related risk situations, encourage the raising of awareness. For instance, Pettatori Onlus is a cultural and volunteer association specialising in the field of social communication, accredited for training in critique of the media. It supports vigilance for the respect of dignity, and the rights of people, the family and youth. On top of it, despite the existing network of cooperation, financial support for meetings, research projects organized by existing networks and new services would help adapt to change. These suppose a Common Framework with an overall strategic goal, possibly defined during dialogue and cooperation between the different actors regarding media regulation, self-regulation and co-regulation as a means of promoting media literacy. Institutional inertia and routine often slow down the development of innovation that media literacy policies bring with them.

Thirdly, the co-participation of the industry, the education system and other actors in the development of lifelong learning activities could be encouraged through European support mechanisms for production. The media industry has most to gain from an effective policy on this issue, because it can increase in the demand of ICT or electronic commerce and communication. It would boost demand of quality in communications resulting in the improvement of competition as well as commercial communication. Actually the current level of audience saturation towards commercial and advertising communications causes a loss of attention and confidence which is detrimental to the effectiveness of advertising messages. Moreover, it is expected that the promotion of media literacy would improve the implementation and extension cycles of the innovations in society and the market. It represents a possibility to take better advantage of the opportunities with in the end improvement and acceleration in the cycle of investment-research-development and amortization. The MEDIA Programme should continue to encourage subtitling and dubbing to enable cross border access to foreign language content. Furthermore public funds might be available to adapt digital applications with understanding of consumer behaviour, facilitating closer engagement with target audiences through social media, and test new business models. Media literacy continues to evolve at the same time of new technology leads to emerging insight. For instance, in Hong Kong and China, the rapid diffusion of ICTs in education and the massive injection of funding have offered huge potential for developing creative work, with an eye on internet safety for youth in Singapore or Japan. In the USA, various stakeholders struggle over nuances of meaning associated with the conceptualization of the practice on media literacy education. Eventually, Australia, New Zealand and Canada remain the most advanced countries, notably because well established partnerships with the media industry and regulators are accepted. Where there are fewer resources, or where there is little interest from policy makers, the development of Media Literacy initiatives relies almost exclusively on partnerships, for example with production based projects in China and Hong Kong. In many African countries, these partnerships are necessary just to ensure the provision of basic resources. In many developing countries, educators are still largely preoccupied with developing basic print literacy, so that media literacy is only just beginning to register as a concern! Nonetheless the possibility that the development of active citizenship could affect the economy remains taboo. The way the promotion of active citizenship could affect the economy and vice-versa is not yet understood properly. There remain differences between what we could call a technical focus to digital literacy and a humanist and cultural focus to media literacy. This is mainly due to a lack of bridges between educational systems and the working system, as well as the lack of consideration given to the value of education in relation to employability and the ability to affect production. Ideological protectionism stemming from a political commitment criticises and condemns messages so that Medias get opposed to this commitment. Consequently, the current emerging model of co-responsibility is still lacking translation into effective actions. The dispersion and bad coordination among stakeholders leads to failure in co-operation and interchange of information among different actors. Then national, regional and local initiatives do not achieve any European visibility of proper media. Nowadays, broadcasters and digital operators should be encouraged to return digital distribution rights to independent producers after a certain period of time, in case of these rights remained unexploited. Better co-operation efforts within the sector could be reflected by the public sector.

B. The new programme Creative Europe

The new programme ‘Creative Europe’ will give, from 2014, the EU the means to better support co-operation between education institutions and the world of work. It would allow the EU to help Member States design and apply effective education policies or reforms, and transfer innovative approaches to others. However various factors make it difficult to achieve a wider and deeper development in media literacy, in particular the lack of a shared common framework to work with, such like objectives, concepts, methods, resources, research, results evaluation. This makes it more difficult for exchanges, comparisons and joint strategies. The dispersion and lack of coordination among stakeholders leads to failure in co-operation and interchange of information among different actors. Then national, regional and local initiatives do not achieve a European visibility of proper media. Besides, beyond the difficulties of material and technological nature, institutional inertia and routine slow down the development of innovation that media literacy policies could bring with them. Anyway, there is an existing network of cooperation. For instance, the European Children Network is active in children’s rights within the EU. Nonetheless it needs financial support for meetings, research projects organized by existing networks. The creation of new specific networks and services would assist in the formation of networks. This supposes communication campaigns and debate, as well as research and education. A Common Framework with an overall strategic goal would contribute to create a European work consensus. Indeed European quality standards – involving media industries, professionals, citizens, and authorities for communication services – could then be developed. Dialogue and cooperation between the different actors should be boosted regarding media regulation, self regulation and co-regulation as a means of promoting media literacy. For instance, Italy has a self-regulation code on TV and Minors: “TV e minori: Nuovo codice di autoregolamentazione, Ministero delle Comunicazioni”. The German Association of State Media Authorities in the Federal Republic of Germany has the duty to co-ordinate stakeholders and local authorities’ interaction. Ultimately Media literacy must be associated with the acquisition of creative production skills for citizens and teachers. A Europe-wide scale inclusion of media literacy in the official education curriculum would promote programme for developing media skills and knowledge as part of the promotion of civil and knowledge society. Education and training in media literacy is as an important part of basic citizenship skills, basic education and lifelong learning, as much in the formal as in the informal sector. In the future, it needs to identify, and increase the visibility of existing work in the sector in Europe, to provide financial and social support for activities in the sector. The coordination and cooperation networks of existing initiatives will enable the debate and research of the results coming from the different possible models of inclusion in the educational field. By the way, the creation of educational media on a Europe-wide scale should be fostered to reinforce the diversity and activities of local communities. For instance, “Cyberfax!” create a worldwide publication written by young people. Besides, the co-participation of industry, the education system and other actors in the development of lifelong learning activities could be encouraged with European support mechanisms for production, award and promotion of productions. Media literacy initiatives with the distribution and development of Europe’s audiovisual and media heritage should be coordinated, with programmes and materials for teaching audiovisual literacy which use European contents, and training and learning on audiovisual literacy to the appreciation and evaluation of European audiovisual production for its contribution to cultural diversity and the defence of identity. Media literacy has to seek equity in relation to technological and cultural innovations in order to guarantee and increase a better use of them and make a contribution to economic growth. For instance, Free Wi-Fi is a pan-European project which promotes the expansion of free Wi-Fi areas. By the way, ties should be promoted between industry and research into media education. For instance, the BBC offers the general public many different online resources for getting involved with Media Literacy and media production skills. In Italy, the Movimento Italiano Genitori is a parental association active in the protection of minors in the media.

Encouraging new uses and helping to create a complementary market accessible to teachers and students could be operated in cooperation with viewer associations. The Commission's initiative on media literacy responded to requests by the European Parliament and industry together with a number of Member States. In particular, projects have received European financial support in with the objective to: analyze media representations and media values in a multimedia perspective; encourage the production and distribution of Media Literacy related content; stimulate the use of media in order to improve participation in social and community life; intensify networking around media education related issues; concentrate on the implementation of media literacy initiatives bridging the media industry and the education world, in a “hands-on” approach. In that respect, the newly proposed ‘Creative Europe’ programme should help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU . Building a new approach toward a European level playing field industry will foster the adoption of policies aimed at developing a conducive environment, enabling European companies as well as citizens to use their imagination and creativity – both sources of innovation –, and therefore of competitiveness and sustainability.

Against this backdrop, and given the fact that the “Europe 2020 Strategy” will determine the EU’s policies and investment priorities for the next decade, this paper also aims at stressing the importance of the different players of the Medias sectors in the implementation of the visions spelt out by the EC in its foundation and extolled in the context of the globalisation.

II. Promoting the EU Ethical foundation in the globalisation

In a global context, public-private cooperation should adhere to both the economic vision of global public goods and the ethical vision of the common good. By doing this, it would prevent Europe from evolving towards a more inclusive, sustainable and competitive society, dealing at the same time with important economic and societal challenges.

Europe need to assume a transition from its strategy based on the notion of cultural diversity toward the promotion of a more “creative Europe”. Indeed institutions in the Global Economy can genuinely respect values which are of three kinds based on a “triangle of coherence”. On one side, it lies today within the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as in the second side within the United Nations – particularly the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) – providing a framework for global legitimacy through accountability. On the third side, the expertise of member-driven international organizations and civil society depends on the incorporation of flexibilities in the rules, so as to preserve the expression of identity in a globalized world.

The Media literacy supposes the development of the knowledge economy (A), and this requires revamping the myth of the cultural diversity facing the experience economy (B).

A. The knowledge economy in the increasingly globalised information society

Activities developed by government and institutional authorities aim at promoting media literacy with investment, subsidies, support, rulings, control, or vigilance. In a global skills race dominated by increasing soft powers, nobody can speak of pluralism within the public spheres, under the reserve of respecting a fair procedure which allows the expression of axiological judgments. Therefore European and international institutions as well as a number of regulatory authorities depending on the countries have proposed institutional definition of media literacy. The involvement of the civil society lies in with the movement to extend education with the focus on “learning for the length and breath of life” acclaimed by both the UNESCO and the EU. The recent concept of media literacy is defined attached to the idea of “Education for Sustainable Development” included in the United Nations’ Principles, of which UNESCO is the lead agency . It was contextualized within the advocacies on the human rights-based approach to programming, and the creation of knowledge societies, both carried out with the support of the Council of Europe. Recently, the Fez Declaration (17 June 2011) called on all stakeholders to reaffirm their commitment to initiatives relating to media and information literacy (MIL) as a combined set of competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes). The first International University Network on MIL and Intercultural Dialogue was launched through a partnership with the United Nations Alliance of Civilization. An International Clearinghouse on MIL will be created in cooperation with the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations. Those institutions are supposed to facilitate follow-up on the recommendations of the Forum. The Organization’s strategy includes the integration of MIL into all levels of education systems, particularly through the adaptation the MIL Curriculum for Teachers. Also it will set up of the MIL University Network as well as facilitation of international cooperation. Preparation of a Global Framework on MIL Indicators and development of Guidelines for Preparing National MIL Policies and Strategies are envisaged.

The EU regulatory framework for media literacy has accelerated in recent years, with numerous policies falling within the scope of a wide spectrum of activity.

The Lisbon Agenda in 2000 – then further developed with the Europe 2020 Strategy – asserted that, for Europe to remain competitive economically on a global level, its citizens had to embrace the competencies required to be able to participate both in the knowledge economy and in the increasingly globalised information society. Further to which, the Audiovisual Media Services Directive gave a reporting obligation for the Commission to measure levels of media literacy in all Member States. It established new rules corresponding to media development in Europe. It also anticipated a full assessment of media literacy levels by 2011, since the civil society will get more and more engaged in the process. In a nutshell, the EU needs a progressive citizenship, from civil citizenship to cultural citizenship, depending on the acquired skills, behaviour and virtues related to the European heritage. Lacking the soul of those values, the EU would disintegrate as many other creations of social engineering only described in a constant (liberal) social contract. So, however media literacy is defined, the regulation should be dynamic, multidimensional, adaptive, fluid and ever-expanding to account for future technological advances, and new purposes for and ways of interacting. Indeed, the way audiences view television is changing very fast. For instance, Microsoft is set to bring live television to millions of Xbox 360 owners. The landscape is transforming, and Internet television availability will be as widely available around the world as it currently is in the UK. Over the next few years, digital services will be free to use on your console to which you will be able to ‘speak’ to order video, mobile phone services, less controlled web and social networks. Against this backdrop, and given the fact that the “Europe 2020 Strategy” will determine the EU’s policies and investment priorities for the next decade, education will have to adapt. In the public sphere characterized by consensus and cooperation, only public goods can be sought and acquired. It may also be seen as a unique world characterized by rivalry and competition in which everyone could pursue their private interests, but only if there is a consensus regarding an objective procedure. Then pluralism supposes the reserve of respecting a fair procedure, which allows the expression of axiological judgments. The development of critical thinking and citizen participation form private to public sphere through the media literacy is an essential contribution to the cultural development and progress of a democratic society. Attention must be paid on the fact that restricting the public sphere to the playground of collective rights may direct to very rigid normative perspective. The central feature of the media globalization is larger cross border flows of media outputs, growth of media trans-national conglomerates, centralization of media control, spread and intensification of commercialization. Citizens experience the explosive growth and diffusion of media technologies and their increasingly central location in our public and private lives. The fall of autocratic regimes in Tunisia and Egypt showed the world how activist can harness Medias. Various forms of political information, symbols, and narratives are astounding. These engagements with politics are not segregated as separate activities for the duty bound so-called ‘good citizen’. Instead they are interspersed and concomitant with the flow and rhythms of routine activities in daily life. Ordinary people even in the remotest village in the world seem increasingly to be shaped by the roles of local-global power dynamics.

B. The myth of the cultural diversity facing the experience economy

The discussion of values has long been central to the WTO negotiations of specific global agreements that allow for the expression of identities. Among members, differing visions contradicts on culture. Hence a movie is an artistic creation in Europe, and then benefits from special treatment, while it is only a mere entertainment in the U.S. whatever his own artistic performance. Even within the fragmented Europe, interventionist policies based on the notion of “cultural exception” get opposed to the policy of the “cultural specificity” on the liberal Anglo-Saxon side. Indeed, in international law, films are traditionally seen as property, and the content of television programs is defined as a service. Consequently cultural interventionist policies get opposed to Anglo-Saxon liberal position, causing failures in international negotiations. Actually the underlying purpose of these challenged policies has not been above all to promote the expression of local cultures and identities, but rather more substantially regulatory development subsidies propitious for powerful impact on media services. The EU fears of abandoning the advances receipt system supposed to guarantee cultural diversity - seen in Hollywood as a subsidy mechanism. Then a number of WTO Members actively support their cultural industry in the interests of preserving their identity, through minimum national content quotas for Medias, and exemptions or subsidies. The Southern European countries pledge allegiance to subsidies or quotas considering the culture as a key economic resource due to its potential beyond fundamental education, spiritual and integration values. In contrast, the very active in cultural affairs at domestic level EU Nordic countries opposed the introduction of quotas in the European audiovisual industry. Along with the UK, they have endorsed the version of a cultural policy by supporting the development of the “experience economy”.

The intangible value of goods is then deemed as important as manufacturing – through aesthetic, design, branding. The primacy of the interests of consumers is foregrounded, adding that competition in the Medias sector would rather have beneficial effects. The influence of creative industries on other sectors of the economy, notably ICT, is recognized. Moreover anxious of having to take into account their privileged relationship between their industries and Hollywood studios, the United Kingdom did not support the European interventionism. Additionally, the conservative-liberal democrat government recently decided to abolish the UK Film Council (UKFC) in 2012. This main distribution organization for government grants to the Seventh Art (with an annual operating budget of 18 million Euros) certainly helped achieve blockbuster trade export abroad and film entertainment (more than 900 feature films, including Bright Star, Slumdog Millionaire, or Fish Tank, The King’s Speech). The UKFC has been promoting such risky, innovative, artistic and aesthetic projects, inventing a new cinematic language. It also reproduced by rote successful unoriginal recipes copying the model of Four Weddings and a Funeral and The Full Monty. The bureaucratic decision-making of this institution that was entitled to inspect the final assembly of the films it financed is deeply criticized. It was neither a guarantee for bond quality, nor cultural diversity. Since April 2011, the British government therefore promotes the establishment of a direct link with the British Film Institute founded in 1993, as well as public-private partnerships with Warner Bros, Pinewood Studios Group, the production Guild, and the UK Screen Association. The UK ranks second behind the United States in international sales of audiovisual products finished. This is due to the funding system combining public and private support, which keeps the players at a high level of demand, pushing them to innovate and to be more creative. In addition, television production has as a social and cultural impact. According to a study of the polling institute BARB, which measures the British audience every week, 83% of the public said they gained valuable knowledge while watching TV and 66% of respondents said they use television as a source of key information. The UK audiovisual market is the leading market in Europe and leads the European industry in terms of size and exports. The UK film industry is the best exporter within the European Union market but is also the most dependants on this European non-national market. Nonetheless the UK Film and Television Industry are not self-sustaining. It is more and more integrated in the European and international system and needs the European market to grow.

In such a conflicted context, the notion of “cultural diversity” has been echoed by more neutral organizations, particularly within the UNESCO - second side of the “triangle of coherence”. Beyond the Declaration of Principles adopted in 2003 at the Geneva Phase of the World Summit on the information Society (WSIS), the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions was adopted in 20 October 2005, but neither ratified neither by the US, Australia nor by Israel. It is instead a clear recognition of the specificity of cultural goods and services, as well as state sovereignty and public services in this area. Thought for world trade, this soft law instrument (strength in not binding) clearly became a crucial reference to the definition of the European policy choice. In 2009, the European Court of Justice favoured a broad view of culture – beyond cultural values – through the protection of film or the objective of promoting linguistic diversity yet previously recognized.

On top of it, under this Convention, the EU and China have committed to fostering more balanced cultural exchanges, strengthening international cooperation and solidarity with business and trade opportunities in cultural and creative industries. The most motivating factor behind Beijing’s willingness to work in partnership at business level might certainly be the access to creative talents and skills from foreign markets. On the European side, technology is not considered as an amusing quirk: the annual income of the new-wave web portals targeting young people now exceeds €96 million. Digital networks are becoming cultural and creative spaces yet to explore. The promotion of media literacy becomes crucial in the respect!


1. Books and monographs:

Mitchell, W. J. T. and Hansen, M. (eds) (2010), Critical Terms for Media Studies. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Dahlgren, P. (2009), Media and political engagement: citizens, communication, and democracy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York.

Frau-Meigs, D., Torrent, J. (2009), Mapping Media Education Policies in the World Visions, Programmes and Challenges. New York: The United Nations-Alliance of Civilizations in co-operation with Grupo Comunicar.

Ostrom, E. (2010), Working Together: Collective Action, the Commons, and Multiple Methods in Practice, with Amy R. Poteete and Marco A. Janssen, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rodrigues, M. J. (2009), Europe, Globalization and the Lisbon Agenda in collaboration with I. Begg, J. Berghman, R. Boyer, B. Coriat, W. Drechsler, J. Goetschy, B.Å. Lundvall, P.C. Padoan, L. Soete, M. Telò and A. Török, Edward Elgar.

Sanders, K. (2009), Communicating Politics in the Twenty-First Century, Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke/New York.

Sen, A. (2009), The Idea of justice, Allen Lane, UK.

2. Journal articles:

Hacker, Violaine (2007a), «Intérêt européen et Stratégie de Lisbonne: actualité d’une notion», (

Hacker, V. (2007b) «L’Art délicat de la politique audiovisuelle de l’Union européenne. Entre tractations commerciales et politique culturelle », Dialogues européens «Les politiques culturelles de l’Union», Presses de la Sorbonne, No. 10: pp. 25-35.

Hacker, Violaine (2011a), “Building Medias Industry while promoting a community of values in the globalization: from quixotic choices to pragmatic boon for EU Citizens”, Politické Védy-Journal of Political Science, Slovakia, pp. 64-74.

Hacker, Violaine (2011c), “The European cultural citizenship regarding the globalized media policy”, Communication on the International Conference on Citizenship and Nationalities in Europe, April 2011, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia, L’Harmattan, coll. Local et Global, Soulages, François (Dir.).

Hacker, Violaine (2011d), “Cultiver la créativité, corollaire de la diversité culturelle européenne ”, Revue Géoéconomie : Cinéma: le déclin de l’empire américain?, No. 58, pp. 25-36, (

Hacker, Violaine (2011e), « Citoyenneté culturelle et politique européenne des médias : entre compétitivité et promotion des valeurs », Nations, cultures et entreprises en Europe, G. ROUET (Dir.), Collection Local et Global, L’Harmattan, Paris, pp. 163-184.

Hacker, Violaine (2011f), European Public-Private Partnership on Media Literacy: A ... curriculum and new technologies, Comenius Journal, September 2011.

3. Webpages

Council of Europe for human rights in Media ( Rights/Media/Links/Events/1Forum2006YEREVAN_en.asp).

European Audiovisual Observatory, The importance of the European Market for the UK film and television industry, 3 March 2011, (accessed April 17, 2011).

European Association of Viewers Interests, Study on the Assessment Criteria of Media Literacy Levels in Europe for the European Commission, DG Information Society, (accessed April 17, 2011).

European Commission Audiovisual and Media Policies for Media Literacy (

European Commission Information Society. Digital Literacy: Skills for the Information Society (

IPR2, “Mapping the Cultural and Creative Sectors in the EU and China: A Working Paper in support to the development of an EU-China Cultural and Creative Industries’ (CCIs) platform”, (

KEA, “The impact of culture on creativity”, Study prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture), June 2009.

KEA, “ Multi-Territory Licensing of Audiovisual Works in the European Union, Final Report Prepared for the European Commission, DG Information Society and Media (

KEA, “Promoting Investment in the Cultural and Creative Sector: Financing Needs, Trends and Opportunities. Report prepared for ECCE Innovation – Nantes Métropole”, June 2010 (

Lamy, P., WTO Director-General, Speech to the European University Institute in Florence on 19 February 2011, (accessed April 17, 2011).

New “Audiovisual without Frontiers”. 9 March 2007. The Commission text of the modernised “Television without Frontiers” Directive. After a first reading in the European Parliament and the Council, there is now broad agreement with the Commission about the future legal framework for Europe’s audiovisual sector. The new Directive reaffirms the pillars of Europe’s audiovisual model, which are cultural diversity, protection of minors, consumer protection, media pluralism, and the fight against racial and religious hatred.

Protection of Minors and Human Dignity Recommendation (1998). It extends the scope to include media literacy, the cooperation and sharing of experience and good practices between self-, co- and regulatory bodies, action against discrimination in all media, and the right of reply concerning online media. It was in this connection that the Green Paper on the protection of minors and human dignity. This Green Paper is the first stage of reflection at European level on the ethical dimension of the Information Society and the way in which the general interest can be protected in the new services. Consultations took place with European institutions, Member States and all parties concerned (industry, users, and consumers) Safer Internet Plus. The Safer Internet plus programme aims to promote safer use of the Internet and new online technologies, particularly for children, and to fight against illegal content and content unwanted by the end-user, as part of a coherent approach by the European Union. (http://ec.europa. eu/information_society/activities/sip/index_en.htm.

4. Statistical Resources:

EUROSTAT. Statistics and Indicators for Europe. ( eu/portal/page?_pageid=1090,30070682,1090_33076576&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL).

Eurybase – The information database on education systems in Europe. National dossiers. EURYDICE the information network on education in Europe (

5. Regulatory documents:

European Commission : Recommendation on Media Literacy in the Digital Environment for a more Competitive Audiovisual and Content Industry and an Inclusive Knowledge Society (2009); “i2010 – A European Information

Society for growth and employment” initiative; Media Literacy in a digital world European Parliament Resolution. The ‘Prets’ Report (2009); Communication on Media Literacy from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee (2008); The Audiovisual Media Services Directive, art. 26 Directive 2007/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2007; Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of minors in relation to the competitiveness of the European audiovisual and on-line information services industry (2006); Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (2006).

European Court of Justice, 5 March 2009, Unión de Televisiones Comerciales Asociadas (UTECA) c. Administración General del Estado.

G20, Declaration of the member of states and government for the creation of the Charter for Sustainable Economic Activity, on 24-25 September 2009, Pittsburgh.

ONU-ITU (2004): Report of the Geneva Phase of the World Summit on the Information Society. genevapalexpo, 10-12 December 2003 (!R1!PDF-E.pdf)

ONU-ITU (2006): Report of the Tunis phase of the World Summit on the Information Society. Tunis, Kram-Palexpo, 16-18 November 2005 (

UNESCO, Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, General Conference, 20 October 2005.

UNESCO (1982): Challenge of Media Education (The Grunwald Document). International Symposium on Media Education. Grunwald, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. (


UNESCO (1999): Recommendations. The Vienna Conference ‘’Educating for the Media and the Digital Age’‘, 1990 ( php

UNESCO (2002): Recommendations. Seville Conference “Youth Media Education”, 2002. ( /t /e/human_right s/media/l inks/events/1DraftVersionFReport_youthmediaeduc_en.pdf)

UNESCO (2002): Recommendations. Tunis Mentor meeting, (http ://

Go to top
Notice: Undefined index: adv in /home/kamranmofid/public_html/templates/jsn_epic_pro/index.php on line 654
example harvard mba essays thesis statement worksheet practice custom term paper writing service essay topics looking for alaska persuasive essay why go to college thesis examples on education beauty essay interview essay fashion trend essays essay on a worn path by eudora welty good essay words and phrases buy master diploma essay help facebook argumentative persuasive essay topics list facebook essay white paper writing free as level essays chemistry thesis abstract uidaho thesis handbook company business plan write a self introduction essay alexander pope essay on man notes how to write a college transfer essay essay discrimination against homosexuals controversial issues abortion essay thesis statement structure gis thesis topics an inspector call essay introduction baby thesis topics math challenge problems nyu application essay 2014 term paper recommendation sample literary analysis essay on the tell tale heart online library management system thesis causes effect essay divorce how to write thesis structure custom dissertation writing services persuasive essay helper theis holster glock 30 term paper warehouse reviews essay about sound pollution marilyn monroe essay thesis 2.0 boxes identity theft essay outline master thesis service topic sentence for analytical essay english homework help publish thesis as book write essay paper memory research paper topics essays about obama diabetes research paper title plagiarized essay on plagiarism doctoral thesis guide physics thesis latex template thesis casino design college applicant essay sample mla research paper tutorial effects on advertising essays how to write a good conclusion for an essay instant essay checker best resume writing services in nyc drug free essay examples hook for an essay thesis statement for zero tolerance digital literacy research paper sample rhetorical analysis thesis thesis cover template latex twins essay pre algebra homework help robert wood johnson foundation essay contest what is a rhetorical analysis essay dances with wolves essay summary how to write your mba thesis term paper cover page examples dissertation topics in electronic commerce thesis statement made easy bachelor thesis review essay edge coupon essay on dogs for children power electronics thesis ideas writing essay tips for ielts essay on hindu marriage texas a&m essay women in sports broadcasting essays need help writing my college essay essay on live and let live can you help me with my homework please why cornell essay college confidential dissertation committee good thesis for essay mla thesis font compare and contrast essay musicians dedication thesis meaning critcal thinking the color purple book review essay world war 2 essay ideas guide for writing an essay executive ghostwriting services phd thesis writing in bangalore powerpoint presentation on how to write a research paper landmark essay top sites to buy an essay examples of thesis for rhetorical analysis 3 paragraph essay on martin luther king jr common app personal essay math anxiety research paper thesis editing services perth writing prompts easy the origin of species essay job satisfaction thesis sample outline for essays + evergreen buy custom term paper thesis binding stirling read think write essay map research paper on xbox 360 research paper format past extended essays in biology brutality essay police educational goals essay thesis jury president thesis claim lead in data warrant do my online class for me paper writing service 10 page process essay thesis statement kalıpları aphorism essay examples thesis writing using word chesley sullenberger hero essay cry the beloved country essay engineering thesis conclusion example thesis ideas for beloved national peace essay contest high school students how to write an essay quickly mexican immigration research papers literary essay intro patrick henry essay contest gcse coursework project 2 love photo essay do my homework write my paper essay on helping hands college board auto essay scoring analysis of an advert essay cheap essay writing service with payment plans definition of expository essay thesis examples topics thesis statement examples on leadership live online homework help help with writing paper bridge background research paper essay national archives thesis statement for informative speech on autism image processing research papers pdf buy custom papers online sample acknowledgement thesis information technology robert frost poem essays thesis binding ucc thesis topics on education management buy a research paper online cheap robert frost themes essay ptlls essay 2 thesis introduction sample for it essays articles education social evil dowry research paper title page essay questions on ecosystems term paper cover page apa thesis writing service in ahmedabad essay on social responsibility of youth essay on email communication business school essay service how 2 prepare 4 toefl essay essays on go green save future sample thesis abstract in education free sample admission essays for grad school short essay on financial crisis doctoral thesis search how to analyze an advertisement essay buy essays research paper reference photos research paper nyc preschool application essays essays on the mexican war thesis about english culture sample college application essay college board essay questions how to write an ap essay simple easy argumentative essay topics dissertation binding time essay writing ne demek essays famous all over town best compare and contrast essay topics metaphor and simile essay essay editing jobs history honours thesis example thesis writing usm mla format 5 paragraph essay outline thesis topics for early childhood education essays on human resource development in india thesis format ms word process and analysis essays examples dissertation ideas in education statistical analysis of data define essay argumentative essay thesis examples compare and contrast essay 123helpme website to buy an essay in a formal thesis-driven paper your diction should be negative effects of television on children essays public order crimes essay sixth grade essay writing gwen harwood hsc essay writing bibliographies format for writing a case study sample research paper for elementary students thesis binding croydon erythrocyte essay example argument essay gre free equality essays blue print welding essays essay on importance of education in hindi language mla format for an essay thesis binding holborn purchase college research papers career in business management essay how to write the thesis for a dbq shawshank redemption essay topics thesis statement worksheet by nancy armstrong answers english essay about nelson mandela claim management thesis questbridge essay table of contents of research paper english essay format pmr american history x theme essay essay for military id thesis topics hotel restaurant management outlines for writing essays thesis statement uk college essay to buy essay helper words subjonctif essayer buy papers for college abortion pros essay essay science topic essays journey of the magi thesis and dissertation topics in library and information science short essay writing examples write my essay for me electronics coursework rutgers university college essay what makes a good narrative essay sample of thesis related to hrm essay about my life white oleander essay what is love essay help with writing college application essay what's a thesis for a research paper someone write my essay research paper detailed outline i need help with my homework common app essay format essay on morality thesis theme support forum i also have a dream essay hku graduate school thesis submission thesis title number of words thesis topics on internet marketing essay on why i want to become a cosmetologist ruskin bond essay essay on environment in sanskrit language pdf essay on experience that changed your life where biology meets psychology philosophical essays thesis sa filipino how to cite an essay in a book for free essay term paper on cyber security consumerism essay outlines for thesis statements goal statement essay research paper proposal sample apa essays on a study of reading habits probability homework help children essay on laziness should brain drain be banned essay byu essay help buy essay essay urban dictionary conclusion of thesis a descriptive essay on the supermarket before hurricane research paper for sale help with social studies homework check my essay assignment writing service review alexander de luca dissertation architecture thesis project report paryavaran suraksha essay thesis statement for standardized testing good religious thesis sample thesis about bullying in elementary review of the book romeo and juliet media essay self-reflection essay thesis editing services prices research paper on tweens thesis headings and subheadings materialistic society essay template of an argumentative essay essay about helping others advantages and disadvantages of eating fast food essay persuasive thesis statement topics hard times essay topics the illusion of life essays on animation pdf dnb thesis guide eligibility writing research papers a complete guide 14th tun dr mahathir biography essay character analysis of the wife of bath essay illustrative essays to buy business plan template korea cuisine essay xtm proofreading how long should a college application essay be psychology extended essay topics any good essay writing services chapter 5 of frankenstein essay essays globalization culture immigrants by pat mora essays statistics homework help services ap literature exam sample essay questions layout of essay edvard munch essay us history geography essay free essay scholarships criminal procedure essay grant writing services english language a level coursework ideas breaking social norms experiment essay good opinion essay tips during thesis defense buying papers for essays buying essays online alice in wonderland essay titles sample essays for mba application chris groer dissertation the quiet american essay online paper to write on dissertation latex files elements of a narrative essay powerpoint sample of argumentative essay about education essay addiction college essay writing services toronto culinary school application essay thesis statement examples genetic engineering thesis exercises thesis binding geelong write my paper mla format vfw essays essay conclusion samples compare contrast essay eating disorders writers online an essay on dramatic poesy by john dryden summary holt homework help thesis in english language essay topics cask of amontillado dissertation research design writing grant proposals essay effect global warming environment buy paper flowers wedding my resolution essay act essay rubric writing a thesis in english literature audison thesis hv venti price essay editing service india patient centred care essay short illustration essay please do my assignment for me essay table manners essays jobs phd thesis latex style definition of an essay quotes in an essay from a book personal significant event essays essays about myself future thesis binding religulous essay northwestern supplement essay 2014 essaye virtual dj thesis topic format add essay nursing site free essays on women in the workforce research essay papers methods of research and thesis writing pdf legal writing essay components business environment essay political corruption essay in india pieter bruegel the elder essay thesis definition example essay on christian beliefs writing challenges essay format mla latex thesis advisor buy cheap college essays essay company biography content statement of purpose writing service transitions essay writing lab report help writing grammar assignable contract scoring act essay best buy cover letter black men and public space by brent staples thesis write my essay cheap write good introduction literary essay help on homework online sara rezvi college essay thesis final defense prayer argumentative essay topics about animals one word essay peace sample essay grading rubric thanksgiving essay topics glory movie review essay revising essays worksheet reaction/reflection on research paper sample irish essay 5 paragraph essay conclusion thesis paper sample buy custom essays halimbawa ng term paper o pamanahong papel phthisis bulbi imaging thesis proposal for networking essay tips for ged free management essays diagram for thesis essay of marijuana mediation essay harvard thesis database ethics essay topics does power corrupt essay thesis paragraph for a research paper thesis for argumentative essay examples essay questions for death of a salesman msc by coursework and research report frederick douglass essay questions argument in argumentative essay rhetorical essay example frankenstein book review essay charlotte temple essays illegal street racing research papers the best custom essays race social construction essay thesis statement format examples thesis format computer science a worn path essay introduction development economics dissertation topics mla essay outline thesis based paper thesis ideas mechanical engineering adoption research papers buy homework online thesis examples expository trial by jury essay essay on cyber law in india buy a philosophy paper essay on tone thesis writing introduction how to write an essay movie review credit education week canada essay thesis statement therapeutic cloning thesis on generator protection should i do my homework essay for your girlfriend tragic hero brutus essays venice essay buy an essay online bad thesis statement practice high school good compare and contrast essay topics master thesis web design thesis latex vs word tok essay 2008 intellectual essays opinion essay free examples macbeth essay example choosing a good topic for a research paper ged practice essay topic 1997 ap english language essay research paper on xanax thesis of phd in physical education free essay on the great gatsby custom papers writing services persuassive essay custom book reports thesis writing by campbell homework construction services llc how to make a thesis for a research paper kumpulan tesis magister komunikasi help with economics homework thesis binding swindon drexel admissions essay topic non fiction essay topics androgyny art essay humankindness shakespeare toward ict coursework template free 200 page dissertations essays importance computers education neustadt presidential power thesis writing service vancouver bc writing memes writing a professional essay persuasive essay on drugs american history thesis examples thesis statement bullying research paper uc personal statement essay examples thesis data structure pitru devo bhava essay essay citing book arguementative essay topic essay on being a leader working thesis and outline good essay questions for college essays essayage de coupe de cheveux essays about dreams and aspiration cause and effect essay free sample high school admission essay thesis acknowledgement dissertation proposal in education term paper outline example structure essay paraphrase generator thesis on work family conflict rhetorical analysis essay topics topics for a definitional argument essay uwaterloo thesis template latex global justice seminal essays paragon where can i get help writing a speech good customer service essay ethical relativism essay my lucky day essay plural for thesis beauty comes from within essays essay on dolphus raymond my favourite personality essay allama iqbal from an essay on man dissertation writing fellowships ntu mba essays 2011 buy a5 paper top writing services nyu application essay thesis on writing skills essays on controversial ads essay doctor check plagiarism essay free online argumentative essay thesis statement scientific research paper abstract examples writing literary analysis essays essays for sale conclusion about education essay phd thesis on nanoparticles proposal essay topics list thesis statement for nursing essay cause and effect essay about economy education technology research papers true love never did run smooth essay baillie gifford essay 2012 science and technology in sustainable development essay science and technology future essay essay on man review essay on materialism bernard malamud essay thesis and dissertation office csulb dissertation binding service newcastle best book review writer write my essay free essays on the war 5th grade compare and contrast essay rubric thesis binding ul dissertation accounting information system mba engineering management thesis topics does thesis go conclusion essays dissociative identity disorder writing term papers argumentative essays for sale quaid e azam great leader essay need help with essays write good history thesis statement free lung cancer essay essay writing judging criteria elizabethan theatre essay topics how to stop world hunger essay genius without education is like silver in the mind essay thesis+examples international relations thesis thesis statement vs hypothesis thesis conclusion examples buy resume online apply texas essay word limit rajkumar buyya phd thesis dissertation thesis winning writing student essay dennett brainchildren essays on designing minds thesis generator for definition essay umd essay prompts thesis of urban design free wordsworth essay graduate admissions essays pdf web mining research paper argumentative essay on taxation i need help with my homework online essay writing service scam thesis presentation ideas critical essays on toni morrison mckay in defense of elitism essay essay on career technical education emphatic order essay writing essayer des coupes de cheveux en ligne homme homework help cpm buy an essay online cheap thesis the greek god undergraduate essay topics good topics to do a research paper over essay planner thesis for human evolution thesis statement on why college education is important best place buy college essays someone to write my assignment introduction to psychology term paper topics circular motion lab report teenage pregnancy solutions essay thesis by publication sydney university hamlet essay questions dissertation editing services reviews ufo thesis statement pay to do assignemnt university mba in information technology+dissertation spongebob essay font essay politics simple way to write a thesis statement culture essay in materialism problem selected how long is a 2000 word essay heading for research paper why are references important in an essay where to buy an essay tentative essay essay on oedipus the king as a tragic hero world of essays cover letter for essay rubrics for writing college essays oroonoko essay slavery rice thesis template essay policy guide writing research paper apa style buy paper towns movie help with college papers art history essay format good thesis title for computer science order an article review thesis printing unsw cheap price custom essay united states how i spent my summer vacation essay short essay on balanced diet description favorite place essay cipd coursework english narrative essays examples essay on my hobbies and interests thesis-oriented essay queen kat carmel and st jude get a life essay research proposal for english paper essay benazir bhutto sindhi website citation within essay characterisation essay lack discipline students essay essay about technology has made life easier edexcel unit 4 history coursework thesis defense evaluation criteria proofreading jobs cleveland ohio high school essay help business communications essays parts of an essay quiz writing linear functions candide optimism essays thesis antidiabetic activity only quality custom essays process analysis essay writing homework help thesis evaluation report pdf ap euro long essay rubric parts of an essay sandwich nun's priest tale essay who is jesus christ essay ambition essay why death penalty is wrong essay ending an essay free algebra help online a model of christian charity essays thesis introduction information technology thesis statement for a personal narrative essay compare and contrast thesis statement examples homework help sites essay on the awakening eat to live or live to eat essay free college essay sample junior school essay india who can i pay to do my homework to buy college papers nyu stern mba admission essay buy essays on from pencils to pixels subject response to essay thomas jefferson essay online website writing services essay writing worksheets harvard thesis bibliography style architecture thesis paper rudi cilibrasi thesis thesis manual utm 2007 custome essay college is important essay dartmouth accepted essay importance and purpose of research paper thesis in dissertation thesis in comparative essay love essay introduction for a dissertation good thesis statement for a rhetorical analysis essay thesis font and line spacing brutus essay 12 example thesis about bullying french essay on work experience gcse how to write 5 paragraph essay essay on life custom article writing reference quote essay apa format great college essay examples essay questions for the alchemist colledge essay thesis examples doc thesis proposal solid waste management no essay scholarships 2016 bernie sanders rape fantasy essay catcher in the rye essay prompts research paper nature vs nurture has anyone used essay writing service paper buy custom essay writing service illegal sociology research essay topics writing service in nyc help with writing short essays hindi essay sites animation cartoon dissertation free essays on the bell jar helping your community essay buy paper bags with handles chicago essay format thesis adviser role essays on road accidents in india essay build proofreading nedir essay of photography thesis themes wordpress narrative essay writing help buy biology reasearch paper general paper essay format rubric research papers high school buying college papers liberal education essay sample research paper with subheadings thesis journal format christianity islam similarities essay research paper on six sense technology essaye d arreter doctoral dissertation purchase how to write a satirical essay model essay sample essay on a frightening dream algebra 2 help thesis title collection essays about hip hop dissertation checking service rhul pir dissertation protection of nature essay essay on describe yourself boeing essay contest 2011 do my english homework dissertation undergraduate thesis statement with outline sample writing units of study thesis on a homicide streaming about my friends essay custom essays website review questions to ask for a career research paper boston university application essay essay questions on night by elie wiesel what is a personal narrative essay thesis abstract example computer science thesis writing in malaysia argumentative research essay topics ideas essay topics on how to do something essay on car accidents german gcse coursework school free brett farve essay formal essay essay writers that write movie reviews for sociological issues essay title page essay about family breakdown essay about journalism ethics ethical issue essay undergraduate thesis search admission college essay help thesis prospectus title page baby thesis writing essay on education vs knowledge thesis assessment rubric thesis statement history paper essay stories love high school essay essays on utilitarian theory frankenstein essay topic sentence renaissance essay ba thesis conclusion thesis statement generator for informative paper dental hygienist essay a bad workman blames his tools essay entrepreneurship essay example example thesis outline research paper thesis ukm style how to write a thesis statement for the kite runner temple essay topic analysis essay on their eyes were watching god essays on water conservation 5 paragraph essay outline template science fair project thesis statement chemistry titration coursework how to write a thesis statement with three points filipino thesis title page essay on fear top essay writing service phd thesis in english language free essays on democracy in america essay on people dubliners essay women thomas sowell needs essay internet effects etd thesis thesis binding lancaster thesis funny jokes apa cite unpublished doctoral dissertation essay on atticus finch courage biology thesis editing custom business paper us history thematic essay poetry is not a luxury essay passion for cooking essay d845 research methods dissertation in social sciences essay about problems in our society scientific phd thesis introduction essay ideas thesis presentation examples ppt tone of the essay research paper zodiac signs university of pitt admissions essay world hindi day essay english provincial exam essay sample good essay writing service project management process essay thesis home_loop uaf grad school thesis format short essay for kids on my family best custom paper writing service model essay 1119 gmat issue essay topics academic software research papers poetry thesis outline what is intelligence anyway isaac asimov essay essay writers online cheap writing kernel modules mba application essay services essays on love by alain de botton thesis statement examples on breast cancer how many paragraphs are in an essay buy history coursework thesis statement about music thesis writing service india sample dedication thesis paper thesis title for psychology students thesis guidelines ppt write my research paper for me thesis statement for argumentative essay on the death penalty university of chicago essays 2010 thesis statement for renting vs buy samples of introduction to essays fahrenheit 451 essay prompts thesis paragraph how to write essay urban thesis certificate of originality someone please do my homework writing on the wall meaning thesis from knust magazines humor essays essay on the byronic hero thesis statement and hypothesis dissertation help glasgow university chicago dean essay thesis for spanish flu brown vs board of education argumentative essay fellowship application essay how to correctly quote poetry in an essay sample lab report biology pay someone to do my homework compelling research paper compared cheap college papers online honors thesis biology research papers effective management cambridge essay services thesis template sfu practise essay topics essay maps essay on body language help me write an essay what is law and justice essay view presentation online problem essay writing annabel lee essay essay edge nus science thesis format essays for university of maryland application research papers in clinical psychology free essays on positive psychology thesis statement uncle tom's cabin decolonization essay topics child obesity essay aarp term paper marijuana legalization thesis philippine retirement authority essay writing contest winners boston university medical school secondary essay report discussion essays by jacob bronowski goals mba essay samples best buy history essay writing essay grade thanksgiving essay five paragraph essay example john stuart mill essay on bentham help me with my homework robert moses essay research paper appendix essay on ramadan blessings good easy persuasive essay topics what percent of a research paper should be quotations purchase literature review essay on homework somebody to write my term paper 500 word essay scholarship essay help pros do my homework essay uc essay prompt king lear essay essay byline essay advantage disadvantage media thesis for construction management ideas how to wright a essay disseration essay tagalog translation global regents dbq essay resume for college applications literary essay outline business letter format essay the great gatsby essay on jay gatsby mla format essay book titles phthisis bulbi b scan china better than india software essay restate thesis statement definition silence speaks louder than words essay family life essay sample pay someone to do assignments the thesis of your reflective essay does money brings happiness essay essay on information technology and development essay title creator online loyalty thesis argument paper help writing websites for kids who is jesus christ essay native american essay pretty writing paper thesis tentang literature college essay paper help creative essay example essay on rural banking in pdf essay game outline phthisis bulbi pain essay on service learning project thesis collection website examples of essays for harvard admissions thesis statement about test anxiety research paper homelessness essay about disneyland california ralph waldo emerson essays and poems pdf definition for essay writing power failure in pakistan essay aphasia essay manners maketh man essay does religion cause war argumentative essay problem solving essay short response essay homework essay writing case study writers company food kraft marketing paper term write ap biology animal behavior essay question essay bariers write my custom paper school sport day essay spm dissertation and thesis abstract system essay writing education system define academic essay algebra help online free discrimination in the workplace essay college essays that worked princeton dedication in thesis sample thesis development worksheet cv writing service edinburgh custom annotated bibliography thesis topics pediatrics literary essay definition assignment log why yale essay do my lab report for me edgar cayce auras an essay on the meaning of colors wordpress thesis change footer royal economics society essay competition 2012 write my biology research paper paper corporation diaper disposable email nappies pants paper report research social science dissertation fellowship professional essay help thesis uitm sample essays for history essay question shakespeare dissertation ses conflits et mobilisation sociale essay on actors research paper examples in apa format thesis supplier development sample essay why college is important to me thesis statement of i have a dream speech modern gallantry' essayist best essay cheap essays on macbeth's character badge beyond brian essay honor in pilgrim secular souvenir spencer term paper definition graduate school admissions essay length speech pathology essay topics math phd thesis latex template thesis driven analytical essay my first day of high school essay roman history essay example english thesis font expository essay about racism make or buy decision essay cover page sample for research papers do my essay for free free essays women discrimination mending wall essay help with writing paper for college sample research paper about computer virus thesis statement about love and friendship thesis essay generator high school homework help sites rguhs phd thesis thesis definition of terms sample thesis games essays on autobiography of a tree how to write master thesis abstract cheap paper purchase recent ielts essay topics spotlight essay war film education program admission essay bullying essay essay books in hindi how not to generalize in an essay home work helper thesis college level nyerere essays on socialism profiles in courage essay submission my favourite actor essay hunger games essay scholarship essay winner help with my term paper good authors for research papers family essays essays penn state electronic theses and dissertation collection research papers kenya a aristotle evolution thesis gcse original writing coursework examples public schools vs private schools essay to kill a mockingbird racism essay education essay topics notebook essays stacy blackman mba essay rocky 4 essay phd thesis in construction how to write the best essay suffragettes coursework essay describing leadership experience gcse ict database coursework examples cuny assessment test writing sample essay nuin thesis proposal tattoo essay writing research report sqa higher history essays i need someone to help me with my apa outline custom essay papers term paper citations sample thesis for informative speech thesis statement baby dumping essay writer generator dissertation in the uk thesis advisor recommendation letter personal essay graduate school psychology thesis job satisfaction organizational commitment topics of a persuasive essay benefit of breakfast essay is america becoming more unequal essays essay about love by filipino author sikhism in canada essay jnkvv thesis manual essay about psychology ap literature essay prompts term paper quotation thesis for english literature flowers for algernon essay introduction cheap custom papers help with algebra argument essay format dissertation kingdom review essays depletion of forest and ecological imbalance edit essay checklist types of essay writing buy hogwarts diploma proper title page for english essay find your thesis statement free thesis generator for a research paper free papers research totally apply job letter sample executive resume writing service michigan thesis statement for merchant of venice essay environment and us essay essay on kashmir issue and role of pakistan ap english language and composition practice essays wind energy thesis statement theme essay outline compare and contrast thesis and outline review essay titmuss blood thesis statements on the holocaust point proof comment essay writing conceptual framework thesis paradigm buying research papers online what is a argumentative essay thesis writing exercise samples of essays cause and effect essay writing tip thesis header plugin thesis for evaluation paper custom college essay services sample research papers with footnotes essay paper writing help critical analysis essay examples doctorate thesis ideas journey essay example student essay example essay for teachers day being a mentor essay animal abuse essay thesis for research paper on the holocaust flowers for algernon essay thesis on business failure new sat essay score analysis of advertisement essay hindi essay on festivals in india adoption essay dissertation defense tips compare and contrast example essays buy cheap essay pest analysis of south africa essays thesis statement examples for opinion essays essays in medieval jewish and islamic philosophy essay on nitrous oxide stanford prison experiment essay audison thesis hv venti купить ap art history essay prompts proofreading prices dialogue essays spm spotted owls essay harvard business school essay research paper word template craft essay example psychology thesis topics pakistan market research society conference papers environmental complexity thesis how to start a good essay thesis abstract photography do my essay cheap njit phd dissertation ocr advancing physics a2 coursework child abuse essay thesis economics custom papers writer world essay online anti pleasure dissertation twilight fanfic essay topics write good persuasive essay topics 5th grade how to write a thesis introduction example act essay questions ap literature essay elementary essay writing topics humorous narrative essays when i was alone at home essay in hindi essay reflective writing nursing bernstein the essay expert llc informative thesis builder thesis in life events stress of college students mit essay prompts 2016 challenge thesis help with a paper concrete durability thesis entrance essay phd thesis change management rocky shore essay how to write an introduction to an essay baby thesis for high school students thesis writing service malaysia thesis statement help research paper capitalism vs socialism essays diagnostic essay buy expository essay introduction to adoption essay thesis high energy physics why me essay application essay college ust graduate school thesis format help me write an essay essay format ryerson search dissertations umi ethnographic essay modern-day utopia essay arlene amarant thesis computer generated essay essays about romeo and juliet how to cite a play in an essay science news gcse coursework what part do facts play in an expository essay duke university thesis paper myturn essays failure essay example phd thesis template ntnu stress free life essay phthisis bulbi wiki thesis us history how to write a 5 page essay example of essay question negative peer pressure essay asian godfathers essay how to write a thesis for a personal narrative essay rpi thesis library job satisfaction thesis topics thesis ideas for the scarlet letter point of view essay a rose for emily short essay for teachers day essay why nurse practitioner online help with homework secret life of bees essay outline thesis writing in delhi essay on bread by margaret atwood 10 000 research paper topics essay thesis paragraph american slavery american freedom analytical essay essay questions night wiesel free essays by gloria steinem business studies essay questions an inspector calls coursework mark scheme rhetorical analysis essay example conclusion visual text analysis essay writing the outline for a research paper french language essay online homework help free nyt college essays exercise essay thesis writing planner essay report teachers day thesis for critique essay how to write common app essay what is pre pharmacy coursework toulmin essay example thesis statement college examples goi peace international essay contest 2011 thesis proposal business administration buy fake harvard diploma thesis statement for restaurant evaluation realities of war essay essay media influence society friedrich nietzsche essay 1 philosophy children research papers elton thesis history learning site priya netha hindi essay essays on motivation in the workplace essay about running a marathon thesis topics reading education essay styles cheap editing services sports law research papers cloning conclusion for an essay history thesis introduction iitb thesis template ldr 711 essay english 30 essay topics child speech development black gold white crude an essay on american exceptionalism thesis introduction paper essay about how music can touch our lives buy paper quilling english essay on an inspector calls list thesis statement examples college essay structure basic apa essay format classical music essays research paper topics on english language teaching hard binding thesis southampton gallagher essay failure essay examples thesis evaluation report pdf feynman science thesis contrast and compare essay outline help writing master's thesis apush essay thesis guidelines uitm persuasive essay on birth control chapter 1 thesis definition of terms advancing physics materials coursework help medical residency personal statement writing services intrusion prevention system thesis thesis statement for the movie doubt thesis introduction for information technology essay about a house who can do my accounting homework ecotourism essay - pros and cons essay about the history of basketball anger essay fear geography number planet public small argumentative essay about rap music dickens hard times essay topics thesis and dissertation writers college application essays for sale essay about love our environment essay on domestic violence effects on children dissertation education help website essay essay narrative spm college paper writing service reviews food safety essays essay questions on native americans ways to start an essay illustrative essay topics top custom essay writing service buy wrapping paper online our national heroes essay examples of reflective writing essays thesis writing service reviews writing an essay in apa format scholarship essay format essay forms government frederick article of science thesis title about parasitology graphic design thesis topic ideas rubric thesis statement critical essay on postmodernism formats for research papers thesis defense thesis defence what is high school coursework uwa mining engineering thesis how to write a taks essay admission essaycom calculator buy an essay cheap how to write a college essay for art school grading rubric for writing essays how to make thesis cover page words to use in an essay dupont essay contest winners essay on reservation in education topic for analytical essay help with your paper essay about successful person descriptive essay topics about the beach low gmat optional essay college thesis rubric which is the best thesis for a compare-and-contrast essay ap psychology sensation and perception essay questions city life and rural life essay obama mccain essay diythemes blog essay on baseball audison hv30 thesis tesis mengenai keuangan daerah medical personal statement service thesis advisory board fast dissolving film thesis pdf buy a paper term paper online essay adolescence education thesis about yoga persuasive essay tips base details essay thesis on study habits and academic achievement use of sources in essay definitional argument essay euthanasia mit essay essay about history thesis theme exploit essays on vaccines and autism essay language and culture essay on school lunches advertisement essay sample ap essay questions literature and composition college papers for sale that pass turnitin websites that do your homework harvard university thesis guidelines descriptive essay room sample cheap websites write essays for you platelet function essay essay checking service essay group projects in class topics for expository essay adolescent peer pressure essays how do i buy a college paper help with term paper dissertation literature review word count essay on idleness corporate thesis topics law personal essay essay on hinduism religion commonwealth essay competition 2008 dnb protocol thesis law school essay writing service free research papers alternative medicine phd thesis on strategy descriptive essay about the beach papers custom written advantages thesis zakat-pdf thesis summary guide excellent model essays spm how to start a persuasive essay on global warming objectives of the thesis berkeley townsend dissertation essay of 1 malaysia college level essay example thesis statement examples generator plagiarism thesis block poetry essay effects gender discrimination essay eb white essay practice with writing thesis statements developing a thesis statement for argumentative essay essay on dracula and religion laura mulvey essay how to write a thesis general introduction professional writing services atlanta bsc thesis example thesis mix font free do my university assignment dissertation/thesis from a database thesis prospectus example o level art coursework 2012 student essay jokes thesis proposal about abortion thesis real estate i need someone to do my assignment essay me and my society essay ethical issues term paper on tsunamis three-part analytical thesis i-research paper write a short essay academic essay writing service world population and poverty essay goals essay persuasive essay rubric high school write essay endnotes example of short essay about nature university of maryland application essay advice writing english essays ap biology essay 2008 best essay websites research paper topics for young goodman brown professional term paper writers team essay end important than means ptcas essay example science essay rubric middle school speech therapists research paper thesis statement examples for the holocaust american conformity essay thesis about canadian history how to right an essay essay stereotyping teach me how to write a research paper order of descriptive essay thesis format chapter 1 sample essay writing service india tender writing services descriptive essays on soccer research paper outline examples for middle school classification essay topic examples john locke's essay on human understanding help writing a narrative essay how many pages is a 3000 word essay bullying and harassment essay gcse coursework macbeth essays dreams may come essay free free mass media essays cs proposal thesis pay to write essay for graduate school admissions guidelines for writing a 5 paragraph essay intellectual capital essay inspiration from nature essay honors thesis brown thesis proposal about information technology essay describing yourself essays scarlet letter sin hku graduate school thesis abstract lab report example what is the difference between research thesis and dissertation dissertation francais 1ere argumentation research paper of abortion celebrating teachers day essay social network essay thesis psychology essay conclusion 9/11 essay desdemona and essay questions thesis theme favicon uploader what is an evaluation essay free euthanasia research papers thesis for a history research paper conclusion paragraph of a thesis essay earth without trees essay writing prompts random good thesis for informative speech high school community service essay example phantom of the opera essay topics help with english writing buy book review paper editorial cartoon essays essay question for college dissertations international marketing download essay books purdue essay college english help websites from thesis to book pdf spm format essay 5 paragraph essay on the outsiders by se hinton english literature essay structures write documented research papers writing and editing how to apa thesis gaeilge essay recession thesis 2012 itp revise essay ganesh utsav essay in marathi pay someone to write paper thesis questionnaire about smoking descriptive essay about mother nature possible essay topics for the merchant of venice thesis defense speech how write a book thesis defense rubric thesis analysis format homework helpers biology graduation thesis defence end term papers of ip university pierre ferrez thesis rad essay com if an essay question asks you to critique a statement or a concept, your answer will nmsu thesis checklist essay about changes dissertation ideas ict education essays plagiarism thesis binding griffith university proper citation within essay service writing automotive proofreading program thesis topics in guidance and counselling law thesis conclusion creative writing titles for children thesis statement examples in narrative essay uk essays harvard referencing global management research paper topics painful experience essay essay on youth violence computer technology essay topics democratic deficit essays lyx thesis layout file gcse coursework geography methodology writing template sat essay practice write my business essay cheap free process analysis essay essay on sylvia plath poetry boston university essay question essay writing service college admission idea of america essay contest 2010 praxis 1 writing essay examples ancient history thesis ideas thesis defence presentation structure junior cert science coursework b 2011 the nymph's reply to the shepherd essay essay contests for high school students canada thesis statements and topic sentences master thesis generator custom writers antenna research paper pdf bachelor thesis research methods compare and contrast essay introduction do you underline a magazine name in an essay english doctoral thesis unit thesis definition essay examples literary analysis thesis evaluation sample thesis statement examples death positive effect of television essay essay writing 5th grade prompts hannah arendt essay norwich admissions essay essay writing in hindi thesis examples introducing yourself sample essay college essay questions 2012 essay on music english essays on knowledge is power essay on abortaion thesis on solar energy in india essay introduction examples berkeley admission essay editing papers compare and contrast essay about mesopotamia and egypt thesis and assignment writing book how to write the name of an article in an essay china essay questions free cesar chavez essays cheap resume writing services bachelor thesis english table of contents thesis acknowledgement letter download free essays in hindi quest homework service working at mcdonalds essay essay on community policing in india quoting books in essays family definition essay theseus and procrustes greek mythology ieee research paper on bluetooth walden program outcome essay ideas for descriptive essay topics thesis research papers examples thesis change font thesis proposal for information technology write my paper canada down and out in paris and london essay topics sample of apa abstract for a research paper will someone do my homework prospero essay essay introduction outline writing essay movie titles underlined essays written about beowulf how to make a assignment thesis positions in germany purchase argumentative essays sample essays for the toefl writing test pdf download bursary essay classification essay examples research paper search augustine confessions essay joe rose enduring love essay happiness key to success essay essays on porphyria good essay transitions upenn supplement essay thesis topics music a compare-and-contrast essay about two characters brutality essay police thesis ideas for mathematics thesis paper meaning sample thesis for graduate school how to do my homework fast examples concluding sentences essays essay good parent thesis paper template word proofreading guidelines my hometown essay research paper outline rubric essay outline template word mac dissertation advisor writing a thesis for nhd kle thesis topics wired an essay on the new aesthetic great gatsby minor characters essay thesis topics technology can any one write my paper argument essay customized paper thesis submitted in partial fulfillment justification in thesis essay prompts for sat thesis format paper proofreading at home jobs number 1 ranked research paper writing service expository thesis statement graphic organizer precalculus homework help biology term paper ideas thesis statement examples on abortion argumentative essay topics college essay about education for ielts essay writing service online msf essay essay get into medical school that will someone to do my paper dissertation and theses from start to finish princeton essay prompts sample problem statement in research paper iain sinclair essays thesis binding uk topics for comparison contrast essays thesis statement examples for technology black hawk down movie essays higher english critical essay help how to write a book report bill moyers essay custom writings review thesis urban design essay topics great gatsby the aims and process of the research paper thesis proposal header dissertation tetanus essay help act celtic mythology thesis essay topics write school psychologist interview essay organization papers research style tone six paragraph essay organizer for me do my homework for me atticus kill mockingbird essay proofreading lowercase emerson essay love respect for the environment essay nelson mandela essay essay writer generator do sat essays have to be 5 paragraphs argument essay introduction walden rhetorical analysis essay thesis examples of compare and contrast essay title for an essay about education fairytale essay essay quoting poem handoff thesis i need help on writing an essay a level english essay help science biology coursework custom essay service free argumentative essay papers criminal law dissertations uk housing market essay purpose of revising an essay purchase essays for college proofreading anywhere examples of apa essay papers phd thesis writing help research paper vietnam war term paper help respect in the classroom essay essay write how to cite an essay in apa essay on life is a gift of god analogy essay definition pollution essay titles scholarship essay biographical sketch thesis about education in pakistan thesis statement and outline university of phoenix search april raintree essays tuesday with morrie essay questions thesis for a research paper help writing speech essay double space example rogerian essay example essay press format of making resume write argumentative essay paper changing society essay english thesis defense writing songs rabbit proof fence thesis how to write reflective essay leaving cert sample art essays mba dissertations free download barack princeton thesis what is the difference between dissertation aims and objectives remembrance essay by timothy findley good 3 part thesis arguments for essays topics essay about world culture essay about sunset research paper first paragraph essay on the role of women in society profile essay example for college human development essay topics thesis printing unimelb qub thesis template essay about teachers role essays for of mice and men by john steinbeck difference between research white papers thesis statement examples grade 9 essay on a world without plants economic problems of india essay suggested essay topics for the great gatsby different types of a research paper cliff notes on essay on man aqa home economics coursework employment cover letter examples essay on cow in sanskrit language charitable acts essay thesis printing and binding bangalore write my biology paper thesis statement deffinition mla writing essay free essays on buffalo creek disaster paper for biology sample middle school student essays custom writing in 24 hrs step by step research paper writing guide nyu mba essay write my math essay what are the best resume writing services thesis statement regarding racism essays about career aspirations ib french essay topics admission essay example annotated bibliography thesis statement online homework help sites resume writers service accuplacer written essay samples elementary essay writing easy example of baby thesis paper essay on transgenesis term paper bangladesh title thesis public administration college admission essay writing service tok essay examples example introduction paragraph descriptive essay thesis header layout plugin essay carbon sequestration technologies compare contrast essay scarlet letter rutgers enrollment essay sample ats-w essays history of computers essay essay on physical journey alexander pope essays assessment classroom collection educator essay everyday in science science attention grabbers for essay phd thesis help india boston massacre essay conclusion editorial essay example thesis xbrl thesis sa filipino how to cite an essay within a book mla essay degree important me thesis statement to a research paper acknowledgement thesis good who to write a thesis quantitative phd thesis how to write a good mba application essay economics essay help 1500 word essay good personal statement introduction thesis proposal example guidelines for preparing thesis in english thesis writing guidelines pdf private schools and public schools essay write a paper for me for free no payment required high quality paper with watermark personal response essay methodology in a research proposal sample essay questions for history write the college essay fahrenheit 911 vs fahrenheit 911 essay writing prompts holidays critical essays on richard iii thesis title english language custom writing discount code sportsmanship essay essay on why do i want to become a teacher thesis writing service reviews saving private ryan introduction essay cell phone essay how to format an essay for a scholarship homework help services what is a cause and effect essay research thesis definition of terms thesis statement for autism speech racism and slavery essay juha-pekka hovi thesis college admission essay examples define analytical essay help writing a book reflective essay on decision making essay on all quiet on the western front movie service writing jsp 101 computer papers privacy term thesis statement transition words social security essay free essay on war on drugs essays on marketing research usc college essay question amazing thesis examples writing style guide gsce geography coursework essay grabbers china essay introduction essay free prejudice pride good history examples for sat essay promoting reading habits essay 5 paragraph persuasive essay outline sample personal interview essay engl 1301 essay life style essay good term paper topics master's thesis structure youth violence essay thesis statement examples homelessness essay on gender equality in pakistan eight legged essay heartland-rimland thesis college scholarship essay contest thesis binding romford essay writer funnyjunk essay for my school life corrig dissertation ses how to write an essay for a job thesis english education consideration in contract law essay criticism essay outline free persuasive essay on divorce can money buy happiness essay term paper topics economy abraham lincoln small essays order essay online cheap fast should animals be used for experimentation essay medical thesis topic list grand illusion essay advantages and disadvantages of using a newspaper for research igcse essays free essays on drugs in prison essay forum writing free domestic violence essays paper writers for college for cheap statement thesis writing process essay sample paper as chemistry titration coursework cultural identity essay essays on population malthus research paper on evaluation ap english literature essay outline monash thesis library capital punishment speech outline writing an informative essay thesis for film analysis thesis proposal example for information technology help writing personal statement do appendices go dissertation essay news creating good argumentative thesis statement sample thesis title about elementary education thesis topics for education in pakistan smoking essays citizenship essay education essay thesis about math education an easy essay rotary club scholarship essays catcher in the rye phoniness essay examples of research papers with abstracts lakme bell song natalie dessay great photo essays how to write an essay about of mice and men audre lorde uses anger essay essay questions for native son joseph hooker research paper essays on who's afraid of virginia woolf drexel music industry essay free written essay essay about belonging essay on my class successful people biography thesis co to znaczy buy paper products online klondike gold rush research paper proofreading notes jose rizal essay list thesis binding in kolkata humorous college essay example of ielts essay thesis in water analysis how to write a thesis in one night essay illustration topics psychological essay topics of mice and men literary elements essay essay examples about yourself